Flours, Starches, & Thickeners – A to Z

Cream of Tartar

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Cream of TartarNutritionSubstitutionMore Flours, Starches, & Thickeners
Potassium bitartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula KC4H5O6, is a byproduct of winemaking. In cooking it is known as cream of tartar. It is the potassium acid salt of tartaric acid (a carboxylic acid).

Cream of Tartar

Cream of Tartar

Potassium bitartrate crystallizes in wine casks during the fermentation of grape juice, and can precipitate out of wine in bottles. The crystals (wine diamonds) will often form on the underside of a cork in wine-filled bottles that have been stored at temperatures below 10°C (50°F), and will seldom, if ever, dissolve naturally into the wine.

These crystals also precipitate out of fresh grape juice that has been chilled or allowed to stand for some time...

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Types of Flour

Flour – Types of

Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for many cultures, making the availability of adequate supplies of flour a major economic and political issue at various times throughout history.Read More
Peanut Flour

Peanut Flour

Peanut flour is a versatile cooking ingredient, and can be used together with or instead of almond and coconut flour. Peanut flour has one quarter of the fat of regular peanuts, which makes it a perfect ingredient for your low fat cooking and baking.Read More
Arepa Flour

Arepa Flour

Arepa Flour is a refined, pre-cooked corn flour (“harina de maiz refinada, precocida”.) It is not the same as the masa harina that is used in Mexico; for Arepa Flour, large-kerneled corn is used that has large, starchy endosperms, making for a starchier flour than that which is used for tortillas.

Arepa Flour

Arepa Flour

There are white and yellow varieties of the flour, because the corn used may be yellow or white.

In the traditional process of making the flour by hand, the corn was boiled in water containing lime (the chemical, not the fruit) to loosen the hulls, then drained, placed in a large wooden bowl, moistened if the time between that boiling step and this one was long, and pounded with a wooden mallet until the hulls (with the attached germ) came off the kernels...

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Index – Flours, Starches, and Thickeners

There are a number of flours used in our recipes or referenced in our world cuisine pages. This is the sub-index for the flours that we have listed in the glossary. Included are information, availability, substitutions, and nutrition, wherever possible.Read More
Rice Flour

Rice Flour

Rice Flour is perfect for baking, as it doesn't impart any flavours and is made from finely milled rice.Read More
Potato Flour

Potato Flour

Potato flour is a flour which is produced from potatoes which have been cooked, dried, and then ground potatoes. It is commonly confused with, but is different than, potato starch flour which is made only from the starch of a potato.Read More

Potato Starch

In cooking, potato starch is often considered a substitute thickener for cornflour or white flour. However, it has a higher heat point than cornflour, so it may be superior for certain foods that require high temperatures. Read More

Teff Flour

Teff Flour is a pleasingly light, uniquely flavoured, 100% whole grain flour. Ethiopian households have been using teff flour in their baking for ages. Teff is a fine grain — about the size of a poppy seed — that comes in a variety of colours, from white and red to dark brown. Read More
Tapioca Flour

Tapioca Flour

For people who are not making Latin American food, the primary reason to use tapioca flour is that it is gluten free. It can be used in recipes for cakes, biscuits, and other dishes, either on its own or in combination with other gluten-free flours. The flour has a coarse, mealy texture and a nutty flavour with a faint hint of acidity that can be quite distinctiveRead More