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How to Cook using Alcohol

There are a vast number of wonderful recipes which use some form of alcohol as an ingredient in sauces, marinades or as a main flavour ingredient. What do you do when you don’t have that particular liquor or you will be serving children at dinner or you do not partake of any alcoholic beverages? In many cases, you can make some non-alcoholic substitutions. In order to be successful, you’ll need to be armed with information and background on why the alcohol is used and the flavour goal of the recipe.

Why use alcohol in cooking?

In general, the main reason any alcoholic beverage is used in a recipe is to impart flavour. After all, the finest extracts with the most intense flavours are alcohol-based, particularly vanilla. Fermentation intensifies and concentrates fruit essence into liqueurs, cordials, brandies and wines. Other foodstuffs are distilled into potent liquors specifically to boggle the senses but still appeal to the palate.

Many object to the alcohol content, but it is a completely natural by-product which happens daily in nature, even within the human body. In many recipes, the alcohol is an essential component to achieve a desired chemical reaction in a dish. Alcohol causes many foods to release flavours that cannot be experienced without the alcohol interaction. Beer contains yeast which leavens breads and batters. Some alcoholic beverages can help break down tough fibres via marinades. Other dishes use alcoholic content to provide entertainment, such as flambes and flaming dishes.

Wine and Kirsch were originally added to fondue because the alcohol lowers the boiling point of the cheese which helps prevent curdling. In the case of leavened goods, there is no ready substitute for beer. Instead, choose a different recipe which uses another leavener such as yeast, baking powder or baking soda. For marinades, acidic fruits will usually do the trick. For flambes and flamed dishes, you’re out of luck if you don’t use the alcohol. For flavouring alone, you will often have a number of substitution options.

Does the alcohol burn off?

Alcohol not only evaporates without heat, but the majority also burns off during the cooking process. How much remains in the dish depends on the cooking method and amount of cooking time. Those bourbon-soaked fruitcakes would have to turn into bricks before the alcohol evaporates. A bottle of Guinness in a long-simmered stew is not going to leave a significantly measurable alcohol residue, but will add a rich, robust flavour. A quick flambe may not burn off all the alcohol, whereas a wine reduction sauce will leave little if any alcohol content. Heat and time are the keys. Obviously, uncooked foods with alcohol will retain the most alcohol.

An alcohol burn-off chart has been compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture with information on how much alcohol remains in your food with specific cooking methods. Keep in mind that this is the percentage of alcohol remaining of the original addition.

If you are not a math whiz, the calculations might confuse you. For example, take a liquor that is 100-proof. This means it is 50 percent alcohol by volume. So a baked and/or simmered dish with 60 ml (¼ cup) of 100-proof liquor cooked for 1 hour will have 12.5 percent alcohol content remaining, about 8 ml. Divide that by the amount of servings, and the quantity goes down proportionately (2 ml per each of 4 servings). With liquors and liqueurs (even lower proof), seldom is more than ¼ cup used in a recipe so as not to overpower the dish. (For reference, a standard shot or jigger of liquor at most bars contains about 45 ml, but can range from 30 – 60 ml)

The same dish with 10-proof wine, or 5 percent alcohol by content, would end up with less than 2 percent alcohol content remaining after baking or simmering for 1 hour. Longer cooking and/or higher heat gets rid of even more alcohol. If you’re worried about legalities, long cooking should do the trick. Always inform your guests when you are cooking with alcohol in case they have allergies or health problems.

You’ll have to use your own judgement on substituting for alcohol in recipes. Sweet recipes will require different substitutions than savoury. Amounts will also make a difference. You wouldn’t want to use a quarter cup of almond extract to replace the same amount of Amaretto liqueur. And remember, the final product will not be how the original cook intended, but it should still be tasty.

  • Look at the main ingredients of your recipe. Usually the main liquid ingredient can be extended to cover a small amount of required alcoholic ingredient.
  • If the amount is less than a tablespoon, it can probably be omitted although flavour will be lost.
  • Any variety of juices and/or tomato juice can often be substituted in marinades.
  • Non-alcoholic wine or wine vinegar can be substituted for wine. Add a bit of honey or sugar to emulate sweeter wines.
  • Extracts, flavourings, syrups, and juices can be substituted for flavour-based liquors and liqueurs. They will usually need to be diluted.
  • Use non-alcoholic wines over cooking wine or sherry. It should be drinkable. The cooking wines and sherries are loaded with sodium which detracts from flavour and adds a salty flavour to the food.
  • To help burn off more alcohol and reduce potential injuries when using it for flamed dishes, be sure to warm the liquor before adding to the hot (the food must also be hot!), and use a long match or lighter to ignite it. Always tilt the pan away from you when igniting. The liquor should be added very last possible moment and lit as quickly as possible to avoid the liquor soaking into the food. Let the alcohol burn off enough so the flavour does not overpower the dish.
  • Tomato sauce or juice combined with Worcestershire sauce or soy sauce can work as a substitute for many robust liquors.
  • Frozen desserts and high alcohol-content liquor do not mix well since the alcohol freezes at a much lower temperature. You may end up with runny ice cream or sorbet.
  • When using milk or cream in a sauce containing alcohol, be sure to burn off the alcohol before adding the cream or the sauce may curdle.
  • If the alcoholic ingredient in the recipe is intended to be the main flavour and you must avoid alcohol, find another recipe. It just won’t taste the same.

Alcohol Cooking Substitutions

Alcoholic Ingredient Description Substitution
Amaretto Italian almond-flavoured liqueur Almond extract.
Beer or ale Various types. For light beers, substitute chicken broth, ginger ale or white grape juice. For heavier beers, use a stronger beef, chicken or mushroom broth or stock. Non-alcoholic beers may also be substituted.
Brandy Liquor made of distilled wine or fruit juice. Scotch or bourbon. If a particular flavour is specified, use the corresponding fruit juice, such as apple, apricot, cherry, peach, raspberry etc. or grape juice. Corresponding flavoured extracts can be used for small amounts.
Calvados Apple brandy Apple juice concentrate or juice.
Chambord Black raspberry liqueur Raspberry juice, syrup or extract.
Champagne Sparkling white wine. Sparkling white grape juice, ginger ale, white wine.
Claret Light red wine or Bordeaux. Non-alcoholic wine, diluted currant or grape juice, cherry cider syrup.
Cognac Aged, double-distilled wine or fermented fruit juice. Cognac is considered the finest brandy. Other less expensive brandies may be substituted, as well as Scotch or whiskey, or use peach, apricot or pear juice.
Cointreau French, orange-flavoured liqueur. Orange juice concentrate or regular orange juice that has been reduced (by boiling) to a thicker consistency.
Curacao Liqueur made from bitter Seville oranges. Orange juice frozen concentrate or reduced fresh orange juice.
Creme de Menthe Thick and syrupy, sweetened mint liqueur. Comes both clear and green. Mix spearmint extract or oil with a little water or grapefruit juice. Use a drop of food colouring if you need the green colour.
Framboise French raspberry liqueur. Raspberry juice or syrup. Depending upon the recipe, seedless raspberry jam may also be substituted.
Frangelico Italian hazelnut liqueur. Hazelnut or almond extract.
Galliano Golden Italian anise liqueur. Licorice extract.
Grand Marnier French liqueur, orange-flavoured. Orange juice frozen concentrate or reduced fresh orange juice.
Grappa Italian grape brandy. Grape juice or reduced red wine.
Grenadine Pomegranate syrup, sometimes alcoholic. Pomegranate syrup or juice.
Hard Cider Fermented, alcoholic cider. Apple cider or juice.
Kahlua Syrupy Mexican liqueur made with coffee and cocoa beans. Strong coffee or espresso with a touch of cocoa powder.
Kirsch (Kirchwasser) Colourless liqueur made of cherries. Black cherry, raspberry, boysenberry, currant, or grape, juice or syrup, or cherry cider.
Red Burgundy Dry French wine. Non-alcoholic wine, red wine vinegar, grape juice.
Red wine Sweet or dry wine. Non-alcoholic wine, beef or chicken broth or stock, diluted red wine vinegar, red grape juice diluted with red wine vinegar or rice vinegar.
Rum Liquor distilled from molasses or sugar syrup. For light rum, use pineapple juice flavoured with almond extract. For dark rum, use molasses thinned with pineapple juice and flavoured with almond extract. Or use rum extract flavouring.
Sake Fermented rice drink. Rice vinegar.
Schnapps Flavoured, colourless liquor. Use corresponding flavoured extract such as peppermint, peach, etc.
Sherry Fortified dessert wine, sweet or dry, some with a slightly nutty flavour. Orange or pineapple juice.
Southern Comfort Bourbon mixed with peach liqueur. Peach nectar mixed with a little cider vinegar.
Tequila Liquor made of the agave plant. Cactus/agave nectar or juice.
Triple Sec Orange-flavoured liqueur. Orange juice frozen concentrate or reduced fresh orange juice.
Vermouth Wine-based drink infused with herbs. I may be sweet or dry. For sweet vermouth, use non-alcoholic sweet wine, apple or grape juice or aged balsamic vinegar. For dry vermouth, use non-alcoholic white wine, white grape juice or white wine vinegar.
Whiskey (whisky) Distilled liquor. Bourbon, Scotch and whiskey may be used interchangeably. Small amounts may be eliminated. Large amounts cannot be effectively substituted.
White Burgundy Dry French wine. Non-alcoholic wine, white grape juice diluted with white wine vinegar.
White wine Sweet or dry wine. Non-alcoholic wine, chicken broth or stock, diluted white wine vinegar or cider vinegar, white grape juice diluted with white wine vinegar, ginger ale, canned mushroom liquid, water. For marinades, substitute ¼ cup vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar plus ¼ cup water.

Alcohol Burn-off Chart

The following chart data comes from the U.S. Department of Agriculture with information on how much alcohol remains in your food with specific cooking methods. Keep in mind that this is the percentage of alcohol remaining of the original addition.

ALCOHOL BURN-OFF CHART
 Preparation Method  Percent Retained
Alcohol added to boiling liquid & removed from heat 85%
Alcohol flamed 75%
No heat, stored overnight 70%
Baked, 25 minutes, alcohol not stirred into mixture 45%
Baked or Simmered Dishes with alcohol stirred into mixture:
15 minutes cooking time 40%
30 minutes cooking time 35%
1 hour cooking time 25%
1.5 hours cooking time 20%
2 hours cooking time 10%
2.5 hours cooking time 5%

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