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List of Culinary Herbs and Spices

This is a list of culinary herbs and spices. Specifically these are food or drink additives of mostly botanical origin used in nutritionally insignificant quantities for flavouring or colouring. This list does not contain salt, which is a mineral, nor fictional plants such as aglaophotis, or recreational drugs such as tobacco. This list is not for plants used primarily as herbal teas or tisanes, nor for plant products that are purely medicinal, such as valerian.

 
Name Image Comments
Achiote Annatto Refer to Annatto

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Ajwain Carom-Seeds Refer to Carom Seed

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Akudjura Bush-Tomato-Akudjura Refers to the crushed version of bush tomato. The flavour is a pungent sharp tamarillo – caramelised sun-dried tomato flavour. Akudjura can be added directly to any dish – it does not require further preparation. Uses include seasoning for soups, vegetables, salads, cheese.

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Alexanders   Native to the Mediterranean but is able to thrive farther north. The flowers are yellow-green in colour, and its fruits are black. Alexanders is intermediate in flavour between celery and parsley. It was once used in many dishes, either blanched, or not, but it has now been replaced by celery.
Alkanet   Traditionally used in Indian food under the name “Ratan Jot”, and lends its red colour to some versions of the dish Rogan Josh. Ratan Jot is one possible derivation of the famous curry’s name.
Alligator Pepper   A North African spice which corresponds to the seeds and seed pods of Aframomum danielli, Aframomum citratum or Aframomum exscapum. It is a close relative of grains of paradise, obtained from the closely related species, Aframomum melegueta. However, unlike grains of paradise which are generally sold as only the seeds of the plant, Alligator pepper is sold as the entire pod containing the seeds (in the same manner to another close relative, black cardamom).
Allspice Whole allspice berries It is used in Caribbean regional cooking, as an ingredient in pickling vinegar and as an essential ingredient in the mix of spices for mulling wine and ale.

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Amchur   The use of amchur is confined chiefly to Indian cookery, where it is used as an acid flavouring in curries, soups, chutneys, marinades and as a condiment. The dried slices add a piquancy to curries and the powder acts as a souring agent akin to tamarind. It is particularly useful as an ingredient in marinades, having the same tenderising qualities as lemon or lime juice. However, where, for instance, three tablespoons of lemon or lime juice are required, one teaspoon of amchur will suffice. Chicken and fish are enhanced by amchur and grilled fish on skewers, machli kabab, is well worth trying.
Angelica   Angelica is prized for its crunchy stems, which are often candied and used to decorate baked goods. You can also use the leaves and stems to add a celery flavour to liqueurs, sauces, and vegetable side dishes.
Anise   Anise is sweet and very aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour. The seeds, whole or powdered, are used in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including the black jelly bean, British aniseed balls, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Netherland muisjes, Norwegian knotts, New Mexican Bizcochitos, and Peruvian picarones.
Aniseed Myrtle   Syzygium anisatum, ringwood or aniseed tree is a rare Australian rainforest tree with an aromatic leaf that has an essential oil profile comparable to true aniseed. The leaf from cultivated plantations is used as a bushfood spice and distilled for the essential oil, and is known in the trade as aniseed myrtle or anise myrtle
Annatto Annatto This lentil shaped seed is brick-red in colour and is used to impart a yellow / orange colour to Latin American or Spanish cooking. It can be used in place of saffron and will impart a slightly peppery, nutty taste to food.

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Apple Mint   The leaves of this plant can be used to make apple mint jelly, as well as a flavouring in dishes such as apple mint couscous. It is also often used to make a mint tea, as a garnish, or in salads.
Asafoetida   Use in asafoetida in minute quantities, adding directly to cooking liquid, frying in oil, or steeping in water. It is used in many lentil dishes (often to prevent flatulence), vegetarian soups and pickles. It is also suited to many fish dishes and some pappadums are seasoned with asafoetida.
Asarabacca Example Example
    Example
Avocado leaf   Fresh leaves often are used as seasoning, and they can also be used to create a bed on which a person can barbecue meats.
Barberry    
Basil, sweet    
Basil, lemon    
Basil, Thai   Thai basil, or Asian basil (húng que^’ in Vietnamese) is a type of sweet basil native to Southeast Asia that has been cultivated to provide distinctive traits.
Basil, Holy    
Bay Leaf   Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavour and fragrance. The leaves are often used to flavour soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean cuisine.
Black cardamom    
Black mustard    
Black Pepper The six variants of pepper The dried, unripe berries of a perennial climbing vine native to South India but now cultivated throughout the tropical zone. Pepper has a sharp, hot aromatic flavour, which was ideal in times gone by to hide the off flavours of old food.

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Blue fenugreek, blue melilot    
Boldo    
Borage    
Bouquet Garni Bouquet Garni The bouquet garni (French for garnished bouquet) is a bundle of herbs usually tied together with string and mainly used to prepare soup, stock, and various stews. The bouquet is cooked with the other ingredients, but is removed prior to consumption.

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Brown mustard    
Caraway   Caraway is a biennial that takes two years for full life cycle, after it produces seeds it dies off. It can reach a height of 30-80cm with foliage that is frilly like the foliage of carrots. It has a thick root, similar to a parsnip and hollow fluted stems. The clusters of small flowers can be white, yellow or green. It is an easily grown plant that prefers a well drained soil and a sunny spot.
Cardamom   Cardamom is one of the world’s very ancient spices. It is native to the East originating in the forests of the western ghats in southern India, where it grows wild. Today it also grows in Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Indo China and Tanzania. The ancient Egyptians chewed cardamom seeds as a tooth cleaner; the Greeks and Romans used it as a perfume. Vikings came upon cardamom about one thousand years ago, in Constantinople, and introduced it into Scandinavia, where it remains popular to this day.
Carob    
Carom Seeds Carom-Seeds A pungent, bitter fruit-pod from the Bishops Weed plant. Although not a true seed it is known as a seed and is similar in appearance to caraway. This spice has a strong thyme taste and should be used sparingly. Use in speciality Asian dishes. In particular, it goes well in dahls, breads, vegetable dishes and chutneys.

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Catnip    
Cassia    
Cayenne Pepper    
Celeryleaf    
Charoli Chirongi-Nut-featured Refer to Chironji

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Chervil    
Chicory    
Chilli pepper    
Chilli Powder Chilli Powder Depending on the variety of Chilli Pepper used Chilli Powders range from the mildly hot to the downright dangerous and vary in colour from pale yellow/pink to deep red.

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Chives    
Cicely, sweet cicely    
Coriander Coriander Leaves Coriander, also called cilantro or dhania, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia.

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Cinnamon, Indonesian    
Cinnamon, Saigon or Vietnamese    
Cinnamon, true or Ceylon    
Cinnamon, white    
Cinnamon myrtle    
Clary, Clary sage    
Clove    
Coriander seed    
Costmary    
Cuban oregano    
Cubeb pepper    
Cudweed    
Culantro, culangot, long coriander    
Cumin Seed
Cumin Seed Oblong shaped, these pale or dark brownish seeds are a very popular spice in the world and are used as a spice for their distinctive aroma.It is an aromatic spice with bitter and warm flavour.

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Curry leaf    
Curry plant    
Dill seed    
Dillherb or weed    
Elderflower    
Epazote   Epazote is an herb well-known to Mexican and Caribbean cooking. The name comes from the Aztec (Nahuatl) epazotl. It is also known as pigweed or Mexican tea and is frequently regarded as a garden pest.

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Fennel    
Fenugreek    
Filé powder, gumbo filé    
Fingerroot    
Galangal, greater    
Galangal, lesser    
Galingale    
Garlic chives    
Garlic    
Garlic, elephant    
Ginger    
Ginger, torch    
Golpar    
Grains of Paradise Grains of Paradise Fruits Also known as Melegueta Pepper, a rare spice indigenous to the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Angola. These seeds, which are closely related to cardamom, have a sharp peppery bite and refreshing astringency.

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Grains of Selim, Kani pepper    
Guinea Pepper Grains of Paradise Fruits Refer to Grains of Paradise. .

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Horseradish    
Houttuynia cordata    
Huacatay, Mexican marigold, mint marigold    
Hyssop    
Indonesian bay leaf    
Jasmineflowers    
Jimbu    
Juniper berry    
Kaffir lime leaves    
Kala zeera (or kala jira), black cumin    
Kawakawa seeds    
Kencur, galangal, kentjur    
Keluak, kluwak, kepayang    
Kokam seed    
Korarima, Ethiopian cardamom, false cardamom    
Koseret leaves    
Lavender    
Lemon balm    
Lemongrass Whole and Sliced Lemongrass A common ingredient in Thai cooking, lemongrass provides a zesty lemon flavour and aroma to many Thai dishes.

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Lemon ironbark    
Lemon myrtle    
Lemon verbena    
Leptotes bicolor    
Lesser calamint    
Licorice    
Lime flower, linden flower    
Lovage    
Mace    
Mahlab, St. Lucie cherry    
Malabathrum, tejpat    
Marjoram    
Marsh mallow    
Mastic    
Melegueta Pepper Grains of Paradise Fruits Refer to Grains of Paradise

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Mint    
Mountain horopito    
Musk mallow, abelmosk    
Mustard, black,mustard plant,mustard seed    
Mustard, brown, mustard plant, mustard seed    
Mustard, white, mustard plant, mustard seed    
Nasturtium    
Nigella nigella seeds The seeds of Nigella sativa, known as kalonji, black cumin, black onion seed, onion seed or just nigella, are used as a spice in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisines.

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Njangsa, djansang    
Nutmeg    
Olida    
Oregano    
Orris root    
Pandan flower, kewra    
Pandan Leaf, screwpine   Pandan leaves have a sweet, unique flavour that is commonly used in Southeast-Asian countries to enhance both desserts and savoury dishes. The leaves are long and bright green, and when pounded or ground, they lend a sweet taste and aroma to many Thai desserts and some drinks.
Paprika    
Paracress    
Parsley    
Pepper    
Pepper, Dorrigo    
Pepper, Long    
Pepper, mountain, Cornish pepper leaf    
Peppermint    
Peppermint gum leaf    
Perilla, shiso    
Peruvian pepper    
Pandanus amaryllifolius    
Brazilian pepper or Pink pepper    
Quassia    
Ramsons    
Rice paddy herb    
Rosemary    
Rue    
Safflower    
Saffron    
Sage    
Saigon cinnamon    
Salad burnet    
Salep    
Sassafras    
Summer_savory    
Winter_savory    
Sorrel    
Sorrel, sheep    
Spearmint    
Spikenard    
Star anise    
Sumac    
Sweet woodruff    
Szechuan pepper    
Tarragon    
Thyme    
Lemon Thyme    
Turmeric    
Vanilla    
Vietnamese balm    
Vietnamese cinnamon    
Vietnamese coriander    
Voatsiperifery    
Wasabi    
Water-pepper    
Watercress    
Wattleseed    
White mustard    
Wild betel    
Wild thyme    
Willow herb    
Winter savory    
Wintergreen    
Wood avens    
Woodruff    
Wormwood, absinthe    
Yellow mustard    
Yerba buena    
Zedoary   The edible root of zedoary has a white interior and a fragrance reminiscent of mango; however, its flavour is more similar to ginger, except with a very bitter aftertaste. In Indonesia, it is ground to a powder and added to curry pastes, whereas in India, it tends to be used fresh or in pickling. In Thai cuisine it is used raw and cut in thin strips in certain Thai salads. It can also be served cut into thin slices together with other herbs and vegetables with certain types of nam phrik (Thai chilli pastes).

Herb and Spice Mixes & Blends

Name Image Comments
Advieh – Persian Spice Mix Advieh - Persian Spice Mix A spice mixture used in Persian cuisine and Mesopotamian cuisine. It is used in rice dishes, as well as in chicken and bean dishes.

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Bahārāt – Middle Eastern Spice Blend Baharat - Middle Eastern Spice Blend The mixture of finely ground spices is often used to season lamb, fish, chicken, beef, and soups and may be used as a condiment.

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Berbere – Ethiopian Spice Blend Berbere Spice Blend Recipe This spice blend is the most essential used in Ethiopian cuisine. It’s a great addition to help spice up any ordinary dish and take it to the extraordinary.

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Cajun Blackening Spice Cajun Blackening Spices Specifically designed for pan-blackening, but it can also be a good all-purpose Cajun seasoning for gumbos and other southern dishes.

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Chaat Masala Chaat Masala Chaat masala (Hindi चाट मसाला, Urdu چاٹ مصالہ; also spelled chat masala) is a spice powder mix or masala used in culinary traditions of the Indian Subcontinent, primarily in Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani cuisine.

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John Doe
Professor of Botanics
Born and raised in Dublin, Ireland, John is a superior specialist in growing palms and exotic plants.
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