Salisbury steak is a dish made from a blend of beef mince (ground beef) and other ingredients, which is shaped to resemble a steak, and is usually served with gravy or brown sauce. Hamburg steak is a similar product, but differs in ingredients. Salisbury steak was invented by an American physician, Dr. J. H. Salisbury (1823–1905), an early proponent of a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss; the term “Salisbury steak” has been in use in the United States since 1897. The dish is popular in the United States, where it is traditionally served with gravy and mashed potatoes or pasta.
Salisbury Steak Around The World
Hamburg (ハンバーグ hanbāgu, Hamburg steak) is a popular Salisbury steak dish in Japan. It is made from ground meat with finely chopped onion, egg and breadcrumbs flavoured with various spices, and made into a flat, circular shape about a centimeter thick and 10 to 15 cm in diameter. Many restaurants specialize in various styles of hamburg steak. Some variations include hanbāgu topped with cheese (チーズハンバーグ, or chizuhanbāgu), hanbāgu with Japanese curry, and Italian hanbāgu (with tomato sauce rather than gravy).
Hamburg steak became popular during the 1960s as a more affordable way to serve otherwise costly meat. Magazines regularly printed the recipe during that decade, elevating it to a staple dish in Japanese culture. In Japan, the dish dates back to the Meiji period and is believed to have been first served in Yokohama, which was one of the first ports opened to foreigners. Since the 1980s, vacuum packed hamburgers are sold with sauce already added, and these are widely used in box lunches (bento). Frozen hamburgers are popular as well, often served in fast food style restaurants because they have a richer taste and firmer texture than vacuum-packed hamburger.
In Hawaii, hamburger steak is very similar to the Japanese hanbāgu. It consists of burger patty with brown gravy. It is usually served with macaroni salad and rice in a plate lunch. There is also a variety which includes an egg, which is called Loco Moco. The dish is also common in South Korea, where the recipe and name (햄버그 스테이크 | hambeogeu seuteikeu) were adopted from Japan.
In Sweden, Pannbiff is similar to a Salisbury steak and is often made by a mix of ground pork and beef, chopped onions, salt and pepper. It is served with boiled potatoes, gravy made from cream, caramelized onions and lingonberries. It is a very traditional dish that is common in the husman cuisine.
Minced cutlet (котлета рубленая, kotleta rublenaya), or, since the late 19th century, simply “cutlet”, is a staple of Russian cuisine. It is similar to a Salisbury steak, with the main difference being pure beef is rarely employed — usually pork or a beef-pork mixture is used. The meat is seasoned with salt and pepper, mixed with finely chopped onion (optionally fried), garlic, and a binder (eggs and breadcrumbs soaked in milk), divided into oval-shaped patties, lightly breaded and shallow-fried in 1 cm of vegetable oil. The similarly named Japanese dish, menchi katsu, is always deep-fried and heavily breaded, being essentially a mincemeat croquette, while the Russian version is always shallow-fried.
Grillsteaks are a similar product sold in the UK.
- 450 g beef mince
- ¼ cup finely chopped onion
- 2 tablespoons dried breadcrumbs
- ½ teaspoon salt
- ½ teaspoon black pepper
- 225 g sliced fresh mushrooms
- 1 small onion, thinly sliced and separated into rings
- 1¾ cups beef stock or broth
- 1½ tablespoons Worcestershire sauce
- 1½ tablespoons water
- ¾ tablespoon cornflour
- In a large bowl, combine beef mince, chopped onion, breadcrumbs, salt, and pepper; stir well. Shape mixture into 4 patties.
- In a large skillet over medium heat, cook patties 5 minutes on each side. Remove patties from skillet, reserving 1 tablespoon drippings in skillet. Set patties aside.
- Over medium-high heat, cook mushrooms and sliced onion in drippings 5 minutes, or until tender, stirring constantly. Add stock or broth and Worcestershire sauce to skillet. Return patties to skillet; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat, and simmer 15 minutes. Remove patties from skillet with a slotted spoon; place on a platter and keep warm.
- In a small bowl, combine water and cornflour; stir well. Add to broth mixture and bring to a boil; cook 1 minute or until thickened, stirring constantly. Spoon over patties and serve.